JulieWhiteCo@netscape.net [julie-w-h@about.com invalid since Dec. 15th 2001]
P.O.Box 1996, 301 Howes Rd., Ft. Collins, Co80522, U.S.A
Saturday, Feb 2001

@iep.colostate.edu
Health Comes from Healthy Behavior


Dear Readers

Fresh Air or Car ?
China Cars Increase Need Plan Control
INTRODUCTION
Polluted Air can cause feciecely results to the health. The volatile organic compunds (VOC) combine with other chemicals in the air could form ground-level ozone (smog). SMOG will cause breathing problems, eye irritation, stuffy nose, and can aggravate asthma. It can reduce lung funcitn and resistance to colds and other infections and may speed the aging of lung tissue. Children, elders and persons with chronic respiratory disease are particularly sensitive to the polluted air. Benzene can cause cancer, short-term exposure can cause uncomfortable. (U.S. Environment Protection Agency, 1999)

The current concerning pollutative sources include :
Items Source
1 Sulfur Industry
2 cabon dioxide Vechcile, industry
3 Benzene Industry
4 air dust Landed reduce, desert impact, forest damage, water resource pollution
5 Bateria Biofilm negative influence
6 Noise Vechcile, industry

With the life quality upgraded of China, car consume will exponencially increase during the next decades. That how to manage the serie air pollution problems related to vechicles has become very urge issue to find the implements now. IF as many as people can use a car in China, that is a marvellouse thing , why a control plan is needed?

WHY CAR INCREASE NEED PLAN CONTROL
First of all , the awareness and economic capability of air pollution prevention is not strong in China. Just in 1998, when Bill Clinton first visited China, there was the first U.S.-China cooperative air pollution project _ a US$5.12 m loan and donated US$145,000 to set up monitor systems. And in 2000, the U.S. and China signed another US$13.44 m subsidized-loan to buy a monitor equipement, California-based Dasibi Enviornmental Corporation, for monitoring 42 main cities air quality.

However, the air improving project costs compared with the initial measuring ones are dramatically unbalance. ONLY a middle up steel plant, which is the main sulfur resource, the air control fee will reach US$12 M. The product and equipement improving approach can spend US$225M. (12-18-1999, The Economist, Vol. 353). Depending on the survey of nationwide, from 1996 to 2000, there are at least 230,000 polluting industrial firms, 12 major pollutants, need improvement to reach the industrial polluting discharge standards. They expected the completed rates of a 88.4% for national enterprises and a 78.9% for the province companies. (http://english.china.com/cdc/en/news/0,1073,15977-107000,00.html). Where to get these finance support? If China government has the budget to manage the air pollution problem, it never had had to get the U.S. loan to merely set a monitor. Therefore, the plan probably will only run on the plan paper because the possible funding now is near zero to its exactly demand.

One more uncompatialbe thing is the loan is used to buy a U.S. monitor. But the polluting sources come from Chinese and global join-venture companies. The measure standard will produce a difference gap. For example, Germany Wagon, Japanese Santanna in China both have the biggest vechile manufacture base, its emmission produce standard will depend on the UN/ECE (Convention of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) or Asia standard association. Hopefully, the officials of China have considered this problem.

Secondary, these manufacturers most are approved in 1980s, the new standards like Directive 99/102/EC, authorized by EEC (Europe Emmision Control) in Jan. 1st, 2000 has not been included in the account of the plant establishment at that time. Then, the OBD must incorporated into LPG. NG (the ignitiion sparks system) in order to reduce the dioxide carbon as well as the hydrochlorofluorocurbons (HCFCs) which is another constraining poison, defined in N0. 15 by COREPER (The committee of Member Statesí Permanent Representatives to the EU) has been discussed to reduce the deadline from 2008 to 2005 (Europe Enviornment, 02-22-2000)) will not get the guarantee to follow up. As we know the CO2 might transfer to CO, these amount plus the uncompleted burning CO from vechilcle are the toxi gas that can cause comma. According to Austria report, nine workers who had repeated accidental exposure to a mixture of HCFC123, and HCFC 124 were all effected to variouse degreesí liver disease. (08-23-1997, The Lancet, Vol. 350, No. 9077). Upon the survey to eight persons from middle east, Asia and s/n America, there is only one know what are the primary air pollutants. Three knew the car emission will impact health, but how they donít know. There is no one exactly know what is the organization working on the air pollution. (see survey graph.) I believe the survey result will probably same on the Chinese people. Assuming no car plan supplemented, the results will be unexpected to China with the continue increasing of private car by a base figure of the 1,300,000,000 population.

The third, the water and land abuse pollution get daily serious. Even last yearís US$9.9 billion investment for the main rivers protection could not help the heavily pollution. In 1999, the arable land lost near double than 261,000 hectares of 1998. This made China has less per capita arable land than half the world average, only 0.106 hectare. The road building will be the criticle bottle for carís development. The forest non-control lamb almost reaches the crazy condition. Desert wind, dust give smoggy and hazy days to residents. Biofilm are scaresely polluted and destroyed. http://english.china.com/cdc/en/news/0,1073,12603-07000,00.html). All of these factors cause air and land acidification, eutorphication and troposphetic ozone. In summary of above disadvantage, to planned increase car to road is very important.

CONCLUSION
To well control the air pollution, it means we have to close some unable to achieve the standard enterprecises. Following by the decision, it will be the job-lose and product not plenty. How to compatible with these serie problems is more challenger than sole air pollution protection problem. Obviousely, a pollutin related industries survey as well as an interaction expert decision project is MUST. This project will balance most optimatically all the metallurgical, chemical, coal-mining, non-ferrous metals and paper-making and vecchicle manufactuer; as well as a possilbe tax complementation, most economic benefit and so on cateries problemsí comprehesive solution. The impact factors should be decided by each industry under its biggest benefit. The weight ratio occupied by the vechcile industry is needed to accurately detected that the protection budget could rationally split to its producers.

References:
1.
Industry Group, 01-22-1999, Regulatory Intelligence Data , Epa Cite pollutino control industries for air pollution.


2.
(http://english .china.com/cdc/en/news/0,1073,10229-107000,00.html).


3.
(12-18-1999, Pollution In China: An ill Wind in Bejing , The Economist, Vol. 353.)


4.
(http://english.china.com/cdc/en/news/0,1073,15977-107000,00.html).


5.
02-22-2000, Europe Enviornment, Conciliation procedures for car pollution and ozone.


6.
(08-23-1997, The Lancet, Vol. 350, No. 9077)


7.
http://english.china.com/cdc/en/news/0,1073,12603-07000,00.html).


All Best Wishes
Julie


JulieWhiteCo@netscape.net [julie-w-h@about.com invalid since Dec. 15th 2001]